Category Archives: Tibet Action Institute

Tibet Action Institute (TAI) is a special project of Students for a Free Tibet. TAI maximizes the power and potential of new communication technologies for the Tibetan Freedom Movement and trains young Tibetan leaders in the art of strategic nonviolent resistance.

Canada’s IDRC profiles Cyber Stewards Network

In an interview with Canada’s International Development Research Centre and Canadian Geographic, Citizen Lab Director Ron Deibert explained the work of the Cyber Stewards Network (CSN), which aims to increases cybersecurity in the global south, and conducts advocacy campaigns surrounding the protection of human rights in the digital sphere.

Asked about the formation of the CSN, Delbert said “The development of the Internet is one of the most profound changes in communications in human history. We need people around the world working locally but thinking globally about how to protect it, so in partnership with the International Development Research Centre, Citizen Lab formed the network, which combines research and advocacy. A lot of the groups in the network want to do more than just research — they want to push for change. We help them with the research and they do the advocacy.”

He went to to discuss the work the network has done in protecting vulnerable groups, such as exiled Tibetans who were the target of cyberattacks by the Chinese government. Citizen Lab partnered with the Tibet Action Institute to develop messaging understandable by and relatable to Tibetans that would encourage them to follow cybersecurity best practices. Deibert also touched on the need for civil society to protect themselves as they increasingly become the target of advanced spyware technologies, given that they frequently express political dissent. He concluded: “Governments — whether in Nigeria, Latin America or the Middle East — are putting in draconian restrictions such as mass surveillance programs and curtailing the activities of journalists, all under the rubric of cybersecurity. Securing cyberspace involves more than technical solutions because however valuable those may be, they’re not going to solve the problem in its entirety because technologies are always changing. We also need to approach the problems as an issue that arises from government and private-sector behavior, which will require wholesale legal and policy changes. Otherwise, these restriction and surveillance activities will ultimately result in a crisis of democracy.”

Read the full interview with IDRC.

Tibet Action Institute publishes report on Youku video platform censorship

Cyber Stewards Network Partner Tibet Action Institute has released a report titled “Erasing Tibet: Censorship on Chinese Video Sharing Site Youku,” which documents censorship on Youku, as well as the broader trend of China-based social media platforms being required to follow regulations on content filtering. Careful testing revealed that video content related to Tibetan culture and the Dalai Lama were blocked, including content that made use of the Tibetan language.

Lobsang Gyatso Sither, who conducted the research with the support of the Citizen Lab, explained that the report was part of an effort to give Tibetans the tools to express their opinions, despite systematic censorship efforts against the community.

Read the full report.

Tibet Action Institute launches Cyber Superhero campaign

Cyber Stewards Network partner Tibet Action Institute (TAI) has launched a new program aimed at getting ordinary users of mobile and online technology in Tibet to adopt safe habits to prevent malware and viral attacks. The Cyber Superhero website contains information that is particularly relevant for Tibetans living in exile, whose online and mobile communications with friends and family in Tibet are often the subject of security intrusions and malware attacks by Chinese government officials. A video summarizing the Cyber Super Hero campaign’s initiatives can be viewed here.

The website launched by TAI features simple tips such as updating computer software, using strong, unique passwords, and HTTPS and 2-step verification for online services. It warns against using chat software WeChat, known to store communications records that are then accessed by the Chinese government. Other mobile security tips include using prepaid SIM cards in order to avoid identification of the user, as well as removing the battery of the phone when not in use.

China has allegedly hacked several activist websites, as well as that of the Dalai Lama and others expressing nationalist opinions, all in an effort to obtain the information of readers accessing the sites. The information that is obtained is often used to make arrests for sharing communications considered subversive to the Chinese government.  The Citizen Lab’s Information Warfare Monitor project’s report, titled “Shadows in the Cloud: Investigating Cyber Espionage 2.0,” documented a complex ecosystem of cyber espionage that systematically targeted and compromised computer systems in India, the Offices of the Dalai Lama, the United Nations, and several other countries.

In addition, the Citizen Lab published reports titled “Permission to Spy: An Analysis of Android Malware Targeting Tibetans” and “Surtr: Malware Family Targeting the Tibetan Community,” which is part of a series documenting the use of information operations against Tibetans and others who advocate for Tibetan rights and freedoms.  An analysis of mobile messaging applications privacy standards was also conducted by the Citizen Lab in a report titled “Asia Chats: Analyzing Information Controls and Privacy in Asian Messaging Applications.”

Cyber Stewards Network 2013 Year in Review

Introduction

Since 2012, the Citizen Lab with the support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has been working on building bridges between researchers and activists in the global North and South to form a space of peers for collaboration and organization at local, regional, and international levels. This space emerged as the Cyber Stewards Network, and since then, members from the global South have been involved in key cybersecurity and Internet governance debates, policy discussions, litigation and advocacy campaigns. The following is a review of major outcomes in advocacy, litigation and public policy in 2013.

Research and Advocacy

Advocacy is broadly defined and in this context, Stewards who engage in advocacy are deeply rooted in evidence-based research as a foundation from which any good advocacy campaigns are developed.

Stewards speak out against Snowden revelations

Following the United States’ National Security Agency (NSA) spying revelations, the Cyber Stewards Network partners were involved in awareness-raising activities on issues of cyber surveillance and privacy.

Partners in the Cyber Stewards Network joined the chorus of voices speaking out against the NSA program and its implications on domestic safeguards for data protection across the world. Alberto Cerda, International Program Director of Chilean NGO Derechos Digitales, wrote in an op-ed that the “violation of fundamental rights has a global character. What good is it for me to be protected in Chile if it’s actually the US government that’s violating my rights?” Derechos Digitales has cautioned users to be mindful of what content they upload on any network.

Ramiro Alvarez Ugarte, Director of Access to Information for Asociación por los Derechos Civiles, has also suggested that the PRISM revelations should force netizens in countries outside of the US—such as his native Argentina—to look at the powers that domestic intelligence agencies wield, especially where governmental oversight of these organizations is lacking.

CIPESA criticized the Ugandan government for its plans to use surveillance technology to monitor the social media accounts of citizens. On May 30, Ugandan Security Minister Muruli Musaka announced that the government would establish a “Social Media Monitoring Center”as a matter of national security. To assuage the public’s fears, a government spokesperson later clarified that the surveillance centre would only target cyber criminals. Civil society remains skeptical given the government’s track record of shutting down media or removing online content under the pretext of terrorism or other security grounds.

7iber challenges online censorship in the Middle East

In early 2013, 7iber started a blog series titled Wireless, where they continue to publish regular blog and multimedia content on media, censorship, and cyber security issues in the Middle East. This ongoing series includes short updates, articles, creative infographics, and videos that deal with relevant issues from the region.

Besides the busy research work, the group received significant media attention when in June, their website was blocked in Jordan along with over 250 other news sites. Subsequently, in July, 7iber was recognized as one of the top ten Arabic Blogs of 2013 [Arabic]. In December, the group worked closely with Global Voices to coordinate the 4th Arab Bloggers Meeting, which took place in Amman.

Training, Education, and Capacity-building worldwide

In 2013, the Tibet Action Institute (TAI) participated in several panel discussions to discuss cybersecurity and targeted threats as part of their “Safe Travels Online” campaign. In June 2013, TAI hosted an event in Dharamsala, India. This “Safe Travels Online: Tech Meet” with Cyber Steward and TAI Field Coordinator Lobsang Gyatso Sither and other TAI staff explaining security concepts and the use of security tools to members of the Tibetan community. Citizen Lab Research Manager Masashi Crete-Nishihata gave a presentation on the Lab’s Targeted Threats research and what they have learned about online threats targeting the Tibetan community. Lhadon Thetong, the director of the Tibet Action Institute, then gave a talk on the importance of digital security, activism and action in the Tibetan community in the context of the movement and struggle for independence. A second “Safe Travels Online: Tech Meet” was held in Toronto and was hosted by Students for a Free Tibet Canada. The meeting revolved around online targeted threats against activists, the Tibetan diaspora community, and their supporters.

As part of the “Safe Travels Online” campaign, TAI has developed a video series hosted on their website. The series stars Tibetan comedian Sonam Wangdue and shows him promoting security best practices for users of digital technology.

In Pakistan, Bytes for All continued their “Access Is My Right” advocacy campaign, which calls on Pakistani citizens to raise awareness about  Internet censorship, privacy, and freedom of expression in the country. B4A describes the campaign as “a call for [a] larger human rights movement in the country and [for] citizens to fight the ongoing censorship as it will further take its toll on already compromised civil liberties in the country.” In the past year alone, the campaign produced posters criticizing the blocking of mobile phone services to prevent sectarian terrorist attacks, highlighting research by the Citizen Lab with the assistance of B4A on the presence of Netsweeper in Pakistan, and supporting privacy rights in Pakistan after research showed the presence of surveillance software FinFisher in the country.

In Colombia, Colnodo held a public cybersecurity workshop in in September 2013. The workshop brought together participants from women’s organizations, civil society organizations, government bodies, and the private sector in order to raise awareness and capacity building for women leaders and defenders of human rights regarding online security issues.

In India, the Centre for Internet and Society (CIS) launched its CIS Cybersecurity video series, a video documentary project featuring interviews with cybersecurity stakeholders from various sectors on hotly debated aspects of cybersecurity. The project aims to encourage wider public discussion around cybersecurity issues. Interviewees include: members of European Parliament, Mariejte Schaake and Amelia Andersdotter; Chief Security Officer for ICANN, Jeff Moss; Director of the Tibet Action Institute, Lhadon Tethong; Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of Afilias Limited and member of the ICANN Board of Directors, Ram Mohan; Principal Technologist and a Senior Policy Analyst with the Speech, Privacy and Technology Project at the American Civil Liberties Union, Christopher Soghoian; former Policy Advisor to the Netherlands government, Jochem de Groot; and Global Policy Analyst at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Eva Galperin. CIS’s Cybersecurity series has informed the producton of a full-length documentary called DesiSec: Cybersecurity and Civil Society in India.CIS released a trailer for DesiSec in November 2013 and held a special screening for the documentary in December 2013.

Research and Litigation

Several members of the Cyber Stewards Network have adopted public interest litigation (PIL) as part of their research strategy. Regardless of whether a given lawsuit proves successful, civil society organization may use PIL to bring issues like violations of human rights and free speech to the forefront of national attention. Moreover, PIL can serve to educate a country’s judiciary on issues about which they may not understand.

Bytes for All lawsuits

B4A currently has several cases before the Pakistani courts and one before the UK courts in conjunction with Privacy International.

In January 2013, B4A submitted a petition to the Lahore High Court claiming that the rights of Pakistanis have been violated through the government’s censoring of various popular sites on the Internet. The censorship of YouTube as a consequence of the site hosting the controversial “Innocence of Muslims” video was highlighted in this case. This petition was initiated in collaboration with the Media Legal Defense Initiative, a non-governmental organisation which supports the rights of journalists and independent media. The Youtube case has received 19 hearings over the past year and a half. Most recently, B4A met with the Federal minister and other stakeholders, and the National Assembly passed a  resolution on unbanning the popular video-streaming site, however the site remains blocked. B4A remains committed to their long-standing anti-censorship/no-filtering stance and will oppose any options promoting censorship as a solution as they continue their advocacy work on this case.

Along with the so-called “YouTube case,” B4A filed a petition with the Lahore High Court on the possible use of the FinFisher product suite in Pakistan. The first hearing took place on May 13, 2013 and resulted in a court decision ordering the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) to investigate the use of FinFisher software in the country. The court order further stipulated that the PTA must make a statement to the court by June 24, 2013. In October 2013, B4A submitted a contempt charge against the government for not reporting to the court with regards to the petition. B4A’s case is based on evidence revealed by the Citizen Lab on the presence of FinFisher software in 36 countries across the globe, including Pakistan.

B4A is also actively collaborating with Privacy International to sue the UK government over its Tempora surveillance program, which would allow GCHQ to wiretap networks passing through the UK. B4A and PI are arguing that the program violates the European Convention on Human Rights’ privacy safeguards as well as the limits of lawful surveillance outlined in the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act. The suit, which was filed with the UK’s Investigatory Powers Tribunal, asks that the program be made illegal and that GCHQ destroys all unlawfully obtained material.

For these and other efforts, B4A and its Director, Shahzad Ahmed, have received international recognition. In March 2013, B4A received an Avon Communications Award “for organizing campaigns for the betterment of women” through their Take Back the Tech campaign. One year later, Shahzad Ahmed won the Doughty Street Advocacy Award as part of the Index on Censorship’s 2014 Freedom of Expression Awards. The award recognized Ahmed as “one of the leading voices in the fight against online censorship in Pakistan.”

PIN vs. the Nigerian government

PIN initiated its own legal action against the Nigerian government. In April 2013, Premium Times, a Nigerian English-language newspaper, reported that President Goodluck Jonathan had awarded a USD 40 million contract to Elbit Systems, an Israeli company that markets itself as an “international defense electronics company.” PIN responded by filing a Freedom of Information (FoI) request, demanding that the Nigerian government provide details of the process through which the contract was awarded and any information that could shed further light on the substance of the contract itself. After the government failed to respond to the FoI request, PIN applied for an order of mandamus from the Federal High Court in Abuja, which in turn asked the National Assembly to amend Nigeria’s 2011 Freedom of Information Act to henceforth bar unjustified requests for information. PIN’s lawyers filed an appeal against the Federal High Court’s ruling, but on November 26, 2013, Premium Times reported that Elbit Systems officials had begun installing its surveillance system in Nigeria.

Data Privacy and Retention in Argentina

Members of the Cyber Stewards Network are active in efforts to raise awareness on the use of surveillance technologies such as the Federal System of Biometric Identification (SIBIOS) in Argentina. SIBIOS is a centralized biometric identification system created in 2011 as part of an upgrade to Argentina’s National Registry of Persons (RENAPER). It is designed to be used by several government agencies, including the Federal Police, the Argentine National Gendarmerie, the National Coast Guard, and the Airport Security Police, and connect them into one database. Ramiro Álvarez Ugarte of Asociación por los Derechos Civiles (ADC) in Argentina has warned that SIBIOS lacks accountability and independent oversight, and has been actively investigating the extent and scope of the system’s capabilities.

During Argentina’s 2013 presidential election, the country’s electoral registration took photo’s of Argentine’s citizens from RENAPER without obtaining permission. In October 2013, ADC  formally requested the Contentious Administrative Proceedings Tribunal to remove these photos from the electoral database. The vulnerability of this database was revealed in late October 2013 when a teenager discovered a way break into the database which hosts the photos of voters and circulated the information on his blog [Spanish] to highlight the government’s lax security measures around personal data. (A translation can be found here.) This issue was brought to the attention of United Nation’s Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in a report published in December 2013 and co-authored with Privacy International discussing surveillance and poor privacy protection in Argentina.

Research and Public Policy

One of the key goals of the CSN is to conduct evidence-based research with the goal of influencing local, regional and global policy debates. Over the past year, Stewards have engaged in direct meetings with high-level officials, participated in key decision-making conferences and engaged governments and the general public.

FinFisher in Mexico

In Mexico, Cyber Steward Renata Avila has joined the chorus of voices calling for government accountability regarding the its purchase of surveillance software. In March, the Citizen Lab published “You Only Click Twice: FinFisher’s Global Proliferation,” which found FinFisher command and control servers on two Mexican Internet service providers, including UniNet, one of the largest ISPs in the country. Following the release of “For Their Eyes Only: The Commercialization of Digital Spying,” two Mexico-based human rights groups, Propuesta Civica and ContingenteMx, filed a verification procedure with Mexico’s privacy authority (IFAI) regarding FinFisher’s presence in the country. The IFAI subsequently opened a preliminary inquiry asking ISPs whether they were hosting FinFisher servers, while Federal Deputy Juan Pablo Adame proposed a resolution before the Mexican Senate and Congress encouraging the IFAI to investigate the deployment of FinFisher. In July, documents leaked by YoSoyRed implicated the Mexican Federal Government in purchasing FinFisher software from a security contractor for up to USD 15.5 million. One month later, the Mexican Senate and Congress passed a joint resolution in which they demanded full investigation into the contracts for the purchase of surveillance and hacking systems capable of monitoring mobile phones, electronic communications, chats, and geolocation data. Congress also called for laws to regulate and restrict purchases of surveillance equipment, extensively quoting the Citizen Lab report in their request. The commercial entities named have not yet responded. IFAI also informed Congress that they would continue the investigation.

Regional and Global Internet Governance Discussions

In 2013, the Cyber Stewards were heavily involved in both worldwide and regional discussions on Internet governance. Cyber Steward and ICT Watch Director Donny B.U was one of the main organisers of the 2013 Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Indonesia in late October. Donny spoke to Detik about Internet governance in Indonesia. ICT Watch used the 2013 Internet Governance Forum in Bali, Indonesia as an opportunity to facilitate involvement among Indonesian CSOs and call for government attention toward Internet governance issues. As part of the organizing process, Donny also established the Indonesian CSOs Network For Internet Governance (ID-CONFIG) as a forum for civil society organizations to exchange information and coordinate strategies to explore and address Internet governance-related issues in Indonesia. This forum united civil society organizations to participate in the IGF in a more cohesive way, and as a result, they were able to significantly influence the agenda and the degree to which the Indonesian government resisted pressure to comply with international norms on freedom of expression.

The CSN used the opportunity of the 2013 IGF to engage in a kind of “just-in-time” research project, by monitoring information controls in and around the IGF itself.  The exercise was undertaken by Citizen Lab researchers attending the IGF and remotely in Toronto and elsewhere, as well as local Indonesian CSN and Privacy International partner . We published a framework post, that set out the terms of the research, and then subsequently, Professor Sinta Dewi Rosadi (Faculty of Law, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia), published our report and its initial findings during the IGF itself.

Almost every network member participated in the IGF. Immediately following the event, a coalition of civil society organizations and individuals (including other Cyber Stewards Network members Renata Avila and Paradigm Initiative Nigeria) delivered astatement to the co-chairs of the Open Government Partnership (OGP). The OGP aims to promote transparency and adopt new technologies to strengthen governance.The statement, which was informed by discussions at the IGF in Indonesia, calls for greater transparency among all governments, especially the OGPparticipating countries, regarding the use of surveillance technology and the export and import of such technology.

CSN members also played a key role in organizing or participating in regional Internet governance discussions. Walid Al-Saqaf participated in several high-level meetings, including the Second Arab Internet Governance Forum (AIGF) in Algiers, where he moderated a session on freedom of expression on the Internet in the Arab world. It was the highest level pan-Arab meeting that critically discussed violations against cyber activists in the region. He also co-founded ISOC-Yemen, the first ISOC chapter in Yemen, in order to advance Internet accessibility and awareness in the country.

PIN and CIPESA co-hosted a series of online internet freedom discussions during November and December 2013. Over four weeks, the discussions focused on a variety of online safety and Internet governance issues particular to Africa, including the African Convention on Cybersecurity and surveillance between countries on the African continent. Following the discussions, CIPESA published a report analyzing participants’ responses and making a number of recommendations.

Finally, B4A and ICT Watch participated in the “Asia Regional Consultation on ‘Freedom of Expression for Civil Liberties’” held in Bangkok, Thailand from November 21-23, 2013. The event focused on three issues relevant to free expression cyberspace in Asia: access to the Internet, online surveillance, and political-electoral communication. The event featured

It was attended by 137 participants from 26 countries, including Frank La Rue, Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression.

For more information on any of these events, campaigns and cases, visit the Cyber Stewards site as well as individual Stewards’ websites, which are listed here.

Tibet Action Institute and “Safe Travels Online: Tech Meet” in Toronto

On November 20, 2013, Cyber Steward Network partner Tibet Action Institute (TAI) participated in a panel discussion and tech session titled “Safe Travels Online: Tech Meet” hosted by Students for a Free Tibet Canada in Toronto. The discussion revolved around online targeted threats against activists, members of the Tibetan diaspora community, and their supporters. In attendance were Citizen Lab’s Research Manager Masashi Crete-Nishihata, Nathan Freitas, the Director of Technology of TAI & The Guardian Project, Lhadon Tethong, Director of the TAI, and Lobsang Sithar, the Field Coordinator of the TAI.

 

The TAI held a similar “Safe Travels Online” event in Dharamsala in June 2013, where representatives from the TAI and the Citizen Lab spoke of the dangers of online threats against the Tibetan community and the importance of digital security. The TAI website also hosts an ongoing “Safe Travels Online” video series starring Tibetan comedian Sonam Wangdue promoting security best practices for users of digital technology.

The TAI has long supported digital privacy. The Institute is a partner in the Guardian Project, a program designed to create apps, open-source software, and smartphone solutions designed to prevent online intrusion and guard the privacy of activists, journalists, humanitarians, and ordinary citizens.

The Cyber Stewards Network Speak Out on PRISM

In June 2013, news broke out in media outlets around the world of a secret program operated by the United States’ National Security Agency (NSA) regarding the collection of information directly from several major U.S. Internet companies. The program, referred to as “PRISM”, involves data collection on a large scale from phones, streams of Internet traffic, and content stored by Internet companies. Despite denials by major Internet companies of their complicity with the NSA regarding this program, leaked reports have also indicated the agency paid millions of dollars to major technology companies to cover the costs of the program.

The revelation of the NSA’s PRISM program has raised concerns around the world over potential harms to online privacy. As the program’s efforts are directed primarily at non-American citizens, it is clear this is an issue of global concern, especially considering the dependence so many Internet users have worldwide on products and platforms developed by U.S. based companies such as Google, Yahoo, and Facebook.

In a CNN op-ed Ron Deibert, (Director, Citizen Lab) suggested that the revelation of the program’s existence will ultimately prove detrimental to Internet freedom. Authoritarian regimes may now cite PRISM as an excuse to tighten and restrict Internet access for their citizens while simultaneously engaging in a digital arms race to offset the United States’ intelligence capabilities. Deibert explained that it is incumbent on the United States to fully “consider the international implications” of actions done by government agencies in the pursuit of domestic security. In a separate article on the use of metadata by security agencies, Deibert also emphasized the need for citizens to ask the “big questions about the appropriate checks and balances of security agencies in a liberal democratic society as we undergo such a profound Big Data revolution.”

Partners in the Cyber Stewards Network have joined the chorus of voices speaking out against the program and its implications on domestic safeguards for data protection across the world. Alberto Cerda, International Program Director of Chilean NGO Derechos Digitales, wrote in an op-ed that the “violation of fundamental rights has a global character. What good is it for me to be protected in Chile if it’s actually the US government that’s violating my rights?” Derechos Digitales has cautioned users to be mindful of what content they upload on any network.

Ramiro Alvarez Ugarte, Director of Access to Information for Asociación por los Derechos Civiles, has also suggested that the PRISM revelations should force netizens in countries outside of the US—such as his native Argentina—to look at the powers that domestic intelligence agencies wield, especially where governmental oversight of these organizations is lacking. Ugarte has also participated in discussions on privacy rights in Argentina with other like-minded organizations in the context of the PRISM revelations.

The PRISM revelations have encouraged other Stewards to advocate for greater knowledge on data protection techniques. Lobsang Gyatso Sither of the Tibet Action Institute has placed increased emphasis on the use of encryption technology in his own everyday work and when training Tibetans on practices for securely transmitting sensitive information. Nathan Freitas, Director of the Guardian Project (an initiative to develop secure mobile applications) and  a member of the Tibetan Action Institute, expressed concern that the disclosure of the United States’ surveillance activities will erode the “moral high ground” from which the country has pressured the Chinese government to curtail its own digital spying.

The PRISM controversy is one of many issues involving surveillance that is part of the global campaign for Internet freedom and the freedom of citizens from unwanted privacy violations. ‘Gbenga Sesan, CEO of Paradigm Initiative Nigeria has warned of the dangers to citizens of increased government surveillance in the context of the Nigerian government’s multi-million dollar contract with Elbit Systems. Pakistani organization Bytes for All has also submitted a court petition challenging the use of the FinFisher software suite in the country.

Tibet Action Institute: Safe Travels Online Tech Meet

poster-Tibet-event-June2013On 12 June 2013, the Tibet Action Institute (TAI) hosted an event in Dharamsala, India, as part of their Safe Travels Online campaign.

The event began Cyber Steward and TAI Field Coordinator Lobsang  Gyatso Sither and TAI staff explaining security concepts and the use of security tools to members of the Tibetan community, while distributing awareness raising materials and information on secure apps.

Citizen Lab Research Manager Masashi Crete-Nishihata gave a presentation on the Lab’s Targeted Threats research and what they have learned about online threats targeting the Tibetan community. Lhadon Thetong, the director of the Tibet Action Institute, then gave a talk on the importance of digital security, activism and action in the Tibetan community in the context of the movement and struggle for independence. Both talks were translated live in Tibetan and followed by a Q&A session.

The event was covered widely by the Tibetan media, such as Voice of America: Kunleng News (Tibetan) (starting from 11:28 minute mark), Voice of America Radio (Tibetan), Radio Free Asia (Tibetan) (starting from 19:53 minute mark), Voice of Tibet Radio (starting from 24:00 minute mark), Tibet Times (Tibetan), and Phayul (English). In addition, Dechen Pemba, Editor of High Peaks Pure Earth and author for Global Voices who has advised TAI on education programs, wrote an article on promoting digital security awareness among Tibetans who live in exile using both online and offline methods.